Detailed information about the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic

Coat of arms of Kabardino-Balkaria

About the region, tourism, infrastructure and the state of the tourism industry in the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic

Tourist passport of Kabardino-Balkaria

The subject of the Russian Federation is the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic.

The area of ​​the region is 12.47 thousand square meters. km.

The population of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic-868 350 people.

The regional center is the city of Nalchik.

The population of the regional center is 239 583 people.

Car code in the region – 07.


The republic has its own flag, coat of arms and anthem.

According to the Constitution of the KBR, a gold (yellow) eagle is depicted on the coat of arms. On the chest of the eagle is a small crossed shield, on top – the image of the silver (white) mountains on two vertices in a lapel (blue, blue) field, from below – a gold (yellow) triliary with oblong leaves in a green field.

In the state emblem of the Republic, the golden color has the importance of supremacy, greatness, respect, magnificence and wealth; Red color – right, strength, courage, love and courage; Eagle is the supremacy of the mind, the power of the law, insight; Trilist – a symbol of fertility, means resistance and constancy.

Coat of arms of Kabardino-Balkaria

The state flag of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic is a panel of three equal horizontal stripes: the upper-blue-blue, medium-white, lower-green colors. In the center of the panel is a circle crossed by a blue-blue and green field; On the blue-blue field is a stylized image of Mount Elbrus in white. The green color of the panel of the flag of the KBR means freedom in thoughts and deeds, actions, the joy of communication and understanding, hope for a bright future; The blue-blue color of the panel symbolizes the glory of the ancestors of Kabardins and Balkars, the honor of living, fidelity and their sincerity in relations; The white color of the panel is the symbol of peace and goodness; Blue-blue and green circles with the image of Mount Elbrus in the center of the white cloth are the location of the highest mountain peak of the Caucasus, geographically located on the territory of a single Kabardino-Balkaria.

The state anthem of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic is solemn music created using intonations and colorites of Kabardian, Balkarian and Russian folk songs. The anthem is executed without words. The author of music is Hassan Cardanov.

History reference

In the Baksan KBR gorge, parking of primitive people of the late Paleolithic were discovered. Graves and settlements 2-1 thousand BC are very well preserved. e. Near Nalchik.

By the end of the 1st century BC. e. Alans who formed the vast Alanian union entered the lands on the lands of the inhabitants of the North-West Caucasus. They dominated in the North Caucasus for more than 1000 years and left behind a large number of historical monuments. The center of the Alan state was the territory of the KBR and North Ossetia. It is here that the huge earthen Alan fortifications are found in large numbers-the settlements, each of which occupies an area of ​​10-15 hectares.The settlements are found near the villages of Argudan, Old Leskin, Verkhny Akbash, Pearl, Psyansa and Elkhotovo.

In the first quarter of the XIII century, the beginning of the devastating invasion to the North Caucasus of the Mongol-Tatars.

Two neighboring people – Kabardians and Balkars – constantly maintained close friendly relations, conducted lively trade and exchange between themselves and their Caucasian and Russian neighbors, fought together against common enemies. Back in the first half of the 13th century, the enemies found almost all the gorges of the Central Caucasus fortified. The occurrence of rocky fortifications, patrol towers in mountain auls and entire fortresses belongs to this time. The Tower of Amirkhan in the Cherek gorge, the Ak-Kala and others tower dates back to this time. In the XIV century, whole fortified citizens appeared, for example, the Ur, which is associated with the new wave of invasions – the campaigns of Timur.

Moving from west to east, the ancestors of the Kabardians, who came from the Azov and the rush in search of pastures and fertile lands, first settled in Pyatigorye, and then in the territory of modern KBR. Since then, the flat part of the current Kabardino-Balkaria has become called Kabarda.

The crushed and weakened in the constant struggle of Kabarda defended with great difficulty from the invaders. It was then that Prince Temryuk Idarov decided to send ambassadors to Moscow, who voiced the request to accept the Kabardins in the citizenship of Russia and protect them from enemies. Thus, a military-political union was concluded between Russia and Kabarda.

Throughout the XVI-XVIII centuries. The peoples of the North Caucasus, together with the Russians, participated in the struggle against the common enemies: Crimea and Turkey, and in the north – against the Livonian Order, Poland and Sweden.

In 1707, the Crimean Tatars with a huge number of soldiers invaded Kabarda, but the Khan army was thrown back to the Kuban. This event led to the fact that the issue of Kabarda was considered at the Belgrade Peace Conference. According to Article 6 of the Belgrade Peace Treatise, which was signed in 1739, Kabarda was proclaimed the free. Both empires (Russia and Turkey) were obliged not to intervene in the internal affairs of the Pyatigorsk Circassians – Kabardins. In 1714-1722 For the constant protection of Kabarda, Peter I to the Terek, regular troops were sent.

The first Russian settlers in the North Caucasus were peasants who fled from their landowners and founded here in the 16th century. Terek Cossack freemen. In Kabarda, royal fortresses and fortifications were built – Yekaterinograd, cool, Kamennomsky, Nalchik, Baksanskaya and others. Nalchik of that time was surrounded by wooden walls, an earthen rampart and a deep moat of fortress. It housed the command of the Center for the Caucasian line, the bosses of the fortress, as well as the temporary Kabardian court. Nearby were the barracks of the garrison, a wooden church and a dozen turntable houses. Below the fortress, on the banks of the Nalchik River, Forstadt (the suburbs of the fortress) was located, behind the fortress walls stood a dense forest. By the end of the 18th century, Kabarda occupied vast territories.The most important roads in Transcaucasia passed through its territory. According to the Russian historian V.A. Potto, “the influence of Kabarda was huge and was expressed in the imitation of the surrounding peoples their clothes, weapons, morals and customs. The phrase “he is dressed,” or “he travels like a Kabardian“ sounded the greatest praise in the lips of neighboring peoples ”,“ In the Kabardians, the Russians found very serious opponents with whom it was necessary to reckon. Their influence on the Caucasus was huge … In the letter of Peter I, Sultan Ahmed III of March 20, 1722, Russia recognized the protectorate of Crimea over Kabarda and refused any claims to it. The same position was confirmed by the Belgrade Peace Treatise of 1739, in which the Russian and Ottoman Empires recognized Kabard free. In 1778, the discontent of the Kabardian princes was expressed in the first major uprising against the Russian presence in Kabarda. In the same year, the uprising was suppressed by General I.V. Jacobi, who put a huge indemnity on Kabard, ruining the Kabardian people. The greatest scope of military operations in Kabarda fell on 1794 and 1804 and inflicted a particularly strong blow to the Kabardian people. The military oppression and the seizure of land from the tsarist army led to the fact that the people of Kabarda again rebelled to extreme bitterness in 1810. The uprising was suppressed by General Bulgakov with a new punitive expedition. At the same time, in 1811 the greatest blow was inflicted on a small cabard, which actually was depopulated after the followed plague. The result of the punitive expedition of Bulgakov was the burning of 200 villages and 9585 dwellings, accompanied by total robbery. In 1822, General A.P. Ermolov. Weakened by the plague epidemics and the departure of a significant part of the population into Chechnya and Western Circassia, Kabarda was finally broken. From the large Adyghe sub -ethnic group, the number of which probably exceeded 300 thousand. At the time of the beginning of the conflict in 1763, after 1822, about 30 thousand remained in Bolshaya Kabard. In 1825, Kabarda was finally included in the Russian Empire. However, part of the Kabardinians continued military resistance to the Russian troops, organizing Kabarda Kabarda in Zapuban (“Fugitive Kabarda”). Some of the rebels moved to Chechnya and Dagestan, where the war at that moment only gained momentum. At the final stage of the Caucasian War and after its official completion, hundreds of thousands of Circassians moved to the Ottoman Empire. Kabarda, after inclusion in the Russian Empire, began to be called the Kabardian (later Nalchik) district of the Terek region. A line “Sovereign of the Kabardian land” appeared in the title of Russian emperors.

In 1867, serfdom was canceled in Kabard and Balkaria. In the second half of the XIX century. Kabarda was an underdeveloped agrarian province, with outlined prospects in mountain travel.

In 1913, a railway was stretched through the territory of the republic, a branch was drawn to Nalchik, the building of the railway station and farm buildings, which were preserved and functioning in 2020, was built.

After the revolution of 1917, the process of autonomy begins in the North Caucasus. In January 1921, the All -Russian Central Executive Committee issued a decree on the formation of the Mountain Autonomous Soviet Republic, which included Kabarda, Balkaria, Ossetia, Ingushetia and Chechnya. The Mountain Republic did not last long: in June of the same 1921, Kabarda left the Mountain Republic, declaring itself an autonomous region as part of the RSFSR. Bolshevik Valtal Kalmykov was elected the head of the new Kabarda, G. Nalchik became the administrative center.

On September 1, 1921, the Kabardian Autonomous Region was formed as part of the RSFSR, and in January 1922-the Unified Kabardino-Balkarian Autonomous Region, transformed in 1936 into the Kabardino-Balkarian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.

The pre -war years were filled with intense work in all areas of the economy and culture. Industry was created: in the region, where literacy barely reached two percent at the turn of the century, a network of secondary schools, secondary specialized educational institutions was created.

During the Great Patriotic War, all the inhabitants of Kabardino-Balkaria made a worthy contribution to achieving a great victory. More than sixty thousand messengers of the republic bravely fought with enemies on all fronts of the war, in partisan detachments not only within the country, but also far beyond its borders. Twelve thousand of them were awarded state awards, thirty -three people became the heroes of the Soviet Union, six – full cavaliers of the Order of Glory. For the stamina and courage shown by the workers of the capital during the war, the city of Nalchik was awarded the Order of the Patriotic War of the 1st degree. In mid-August 1942, the German-Romanian troops, led by General Ion Dumitrache, entered the territory of the KBASR. Moreover, the troops tried to accommodate in almost all areas of the republic. For example, on August 15, 1942, a special detachment of Captain Grotto from the Edelweiss division went with special assignments to the slopes of Mount Elbrus. On August 21, 1942, this detachment established its standards at the top of Elbrus. With the establishment of the occupation regime in the territory of the KBASSR, Soviet authorities were liquidated. The battles on Elbrus in 1942 were part of a large -scale battle for the Caucasus, Soviet troops returned the captured territories. On September 3, the company of Lieutenant Grigoryan was an order to free the shelter of eleven, 105 pickets and an ice base. The Edelweiss division was impeccably prepared and provided with climbing equipment, skiing, mortars and cards. The company of Lieutenant G. Grigoryansa fell under the strongest gun-machine-gun fire. Of the 102 fighters, only 4 people returned from the battle. Lieutenant Guren Grigoryants remained on the battlefield.His body and the remains of his combat comrades were discovered on the Elbrus glacier and devoted to the Earth with military honors only in 2014.

In 1944, the Balkarian people were deported to Kazakhstan and Central Asia. The Balkars spent 13 years in exile and in 1957 returned to their homeland.

After the war, the republic was able to quickly recover: agriculture, industry, construction and tourism industry (mountain tourism and mountaineering) were actively developing. A large number of different camps, recreation bases and alprains that acquired all -Union significance were erected. Great attention was paid to sanatorium-resort treatment. Nalchik became one of the centers of rest in the Caucasus.

On April 5, 1957, a resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR was signed on the opening of one of the first in the North Caucasus of a multidisciplinary higher educational institution-Kabardino-Balkarian State University.

Since 1991, Kabardino-Balkaria has become a subject of the Russian Federation with its own statehood, the presidential institution, parliament and the government. The first president of the KBR was Valery Muhammadovich Kokov.

Kabardino -Balkaria is a land of extraordinary natural contrasts caused by its relief, here you can find arid steppes, flowering valleys, lush subalpine meadows and high mountains covered with eternal snow, fabulous glaciers and noisy waterfalls.

The capital of the Republic of Nalchik is a large scientific, cultural and industrial center, resort city of all -Russian significance.

The economy of Kabardino-Balkaria is mainly the prevailing diversified national economic complex, which corresponds to the natural and climatic conditions of the republic. A very important part of the economic potential of the republic is a recreational complex created on the basis of the use of therapeutic mineral springs and unique natural conditions. Thanks to the favorable natural and climatic conditions, a multidisciplinary resort “Nalchik” has been created, where there are mineral springs (bromo-iodine, nitrogen-terminal, hydrogen sulfide, mineral waters), mud sources of Lake’s Tambucan. On the basis of the sanatoriums of the resort “Nalchik”, the musculoskeletal system, diseases of the nervous system, the gastrointestinal tract, the upper respiratory tract, etc. are treated.

Geographical position

The Kabardino-Balkarian Republic is located in the south of the European part of Russia-on the northern slopes of the central part of the Greater Caucasus (Mount Elbrus, 5642 m) and the adjacent plains. The total area of ​​the republic is 12470 square meters. km.

The length of the territory from the north to the south of 100 km, from west to east – 175 km, the largest length in the meridional direction is 160 km, in Shirotny – 145 km.

In the north, north-east and west of the KBR borders on the Stavropol Territory and the Karachay-Cherkess Republic, in the east and southeast-with the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania.In the south, along the Main Caucasian Range, there is a state border with Georgia, 130.7 km long.

The total length of the borders of the republic is 696 km. The border line is curvy. Most of it runs along the low foothills and plains, and a smaller part – along the mountains. In the south and southeastern part, it runs along the crest of the Main Caucasian Range. In the south-west, the border crosses the Elbrus massif, in the west – the leveled surface of the Bechasyn plateau, runs along the Kabarda Range, the valley of the Kichmalka River, crosses the Dzhinalsky Range. Then it goes along the Psynshoko River to Tambukan Lake, turns southeast to the Malka River, which becomes the border river to the Malka-Kura Canal. Then, to the very northeast, the border runs along the flat steppes.

The eastern border is watery in a small area – along the Terek, then it crosses the Kabarda and Tersky ridges from north to south, turns southwest to the Lesistoy ridge, crosses the Rocky ridge along the Argudan and Khaznidon river valleys and goes to the Lateral and Main Caucasian ridges.


Kabardino-Balkaria is located in the southern part of the temperate climate zone. According to the combination of moisture and heat, it is located in two climatic regions: in the Ciscaucasia and the High Caucasus. Located in relatively low southern latitudes, the territory of the republic receives significant amounts of solar radiation, which determines the abundance of sunlight and heat.

Located on the border of the temperate and subtropical climatic zones, the Caucasus Mountains are an important climate divide. The territory of Kabardino-Balkaria, fenced off from the south and southwest by the mountains of the Greater Caucasus, is open from the north and northwest for free intrusion of cold air masses from the Arctic. The relief also has a great influence on the distribution of precipitation, increasing their precipitation when moist air masses enter the territory of the republic.

On the territory of Kabardino-Balkaria, precipitation is distributed extremely unevenly: a small amount falls in the northeast – less than 300 mm, while more than 1000 mm falls on the windward slopes in the highlands. The distribution of precipitation is largely influenced by the nature of the surface. In the precipitation regime, the following feature is observed: most of the precipitation falls in the warm season – from April to October, precipitation increases by 3-4 times compared to the cold period.

The climate is temperate continental. On the Kabardian Plain, in winter, the air temperature ranges from +1 to -8 degrees, in summer – from +20 to +26 degrees. The growing season on the plain is 190 days. In the mountainous regions of the republic, the temperature in winter reaches -20 degrees, in summer it fluctuates from +4 to +15 degrees.

Administrative-territorial structure

According to the Law of the KBR On the administrative-territorial structure of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, the subject of the Russian Federation includes the following administrative-territorial units: 3 cities of republican significance and 10 districts.

As part of the municipal structure of the republic, municipalities were formed within the boundaries of administrative-territorial units of Kabardino-Balkaria: 3 urban districts and 10 municipal regions.

The capital of the republic is the city of Nalchik, which is also a large economic center of the North Caucasus and one of the main resorts of federal significance in the country.

Marketing information about the region

The Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria is present on the following tourist portals with mobile applications, where general information about the region, attractions are presented, there is an opportunity to book hotels, order excursions and other related services:

– – available for download in the App Store;

– – available for download in the App Store, Google Play;

– – available for download in Google Play;

– – available for download in the App Store;

– – available for download in the App Store, Google Play;

– – available for download in the App Store, Google Play;

– – Available for downloading in Google Play.

For residents and guests of the republic, an information tourist portal was created –http: //

In 2015, the Federal Agency for Tourism (hereinafter referred to as Rosturism) launched a national information resource “”, the information content of which is formed by the executive authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation in the field of tourism. The portal is one of the most important tools with which the tourist product is being promoted to the market, public opinion is formed.

The concept of the development of the tourist and recreational complex of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic defines 11 zones of potential recreational specialization, which have different levels of development, including the Elbrusier mining and recreational complex, and the sanatorium-resort complex of Nalchik, and the Jile-Su recreational and resort complexes , Auschiger, Tambucan, Alpinist Complex Bezengi, excursion and tourist complexes Chegem waterfalls, Blue lakes, Valley Narzanov, archaeological and tourist complexes Verkhnyaya Balkaria and Upper Chegem.

The main brands of the territory

The most iconic objects of the KBR are: Mount Elbrus, the Elbrusier district. And also the All-Russian health resort Kurort-Nalchik.

1. Mining and recreational complex Elbrusier

Elbrusier is a center of skiing, tourism and mountaineering. The area has unique healing and health resources, a favorable microclimate and large reserves of high-quality mineral waters, which creates the prerequisites for creating a world-class ski resort.

The complex is represented by more than 50 hotels, recreation centers and boarding houses, ready to take about 5 thousand people at a time.

Here, modern cableways operating on the slopes of G. Elbrus and G. Cheget, ski routes that are famous for their length and steepness.

2.Resort of federal significance Nalchik

The Nalchik resort is a balneological and climatic resort of federal significance located in the foothill zone of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic at altitudes from 500 to 560 meters above sea level in the horseshoe of the mountains of the central part of the Main Caucasian Range in the most climatically comfortable area of ​​the capital of the republic, Nalchik.

The resort of federal significance Nalchik includes 33 sanatorium-and-spa institutions and infrastructure enterprises of various departmental subordination. The number of placements is more than 4 thousand.

Unique climatic conditions, the presence of a large number of effective natural healing factors put the resort on a par with the world-famous resort centers of Europe.

The resort has 18 mineral springs and wells with a total debit of 12 million liters. per day.

It should be noted that Nalchik is one of the few places in the world where 4 types of mineral water of different types are collected together: iodine-bromine, nitrogen-thermal, hydrogen sulfide, hydrocarbonate-sodium. Along with mineral waters, the resort widely uses the therapeutic mud of Lake Tambukan. It is used for diseases of the nervous system, musculoskeletal system, gynecological, urological diseases, digestive organs, vascular diseases.

3. Climbing complex Bezengi

The “five-thousanders” of the Caucasus, with the exception of Elbrus and Kazbek, are located in the famous Bezengi Wall and the Northern Massif. These are Shkhara (5203 m), Dzhangi-tau (5252 m), Dykh-tau (5198 m), Mizhirgi (5025 m), Pushkin Peak (5000 m).

The base Bezengi, with a capacity of 160 places, is located in the upper reaches of the Bezengi Gorge at an altitude of 2100 m at the foot of the Northern Massif and operates seasonally (June-September). In 2020, the complex is used for professionally trained and beginner climbers.

4. Excursion and tourist complexes Chegem Falls, Blue Lakes, Valley of Narzans

Chegem waterfalls are located in the gorge of the Rocky Range and are a favorite place for tourists and vacationers.

The complex Blue Lakes is located in the Cherek-Balkar Gorge at an altitude of 820 meters.

The attraction of the complex are five lakes, three of which are of karst origin: Lower Blue, Dry and Secret. The Lower Blue Lake is especially unique: the depth is 254 m, the mirror area is 2.4 hectares, the temperature is stable all year round – 9.3 degrees – due to the presence of hydrogen sulfide, the water has a blue color in any weather. There is a unique diving club on the Lower Blue Lake.

5. Archaeological and tourist complexes Upper Balkaria and Upper Chegem

Represented by historical and architectural complexes of the late Middle Ages: feudal residences, battle towers, ground and underground mausoleums-tombs. Most of these objects have the status of monuments of federal (all-Russian) significance.

6.The healing and vocal complex Tambucan

The Tambucan Lake lies in a small basin at the M-29 Caucasus motorway. The length of the lake is about two kilometers, in width – about one.

Water resources: the availability of rivers and lakes

The hydrographic network of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic is 206 rivers, with a length of 3794 km. The rivers in the republic are classified as mountain rivers and their channels are subject to lateral and bottom erosion.

In the mountainous part of the river, they flow in narrow canyons, where erosion of the channel is not observed. The high speed of the water flow, creating large sediments of glaciers, snow avalanches, mudflows, is characteristic. The largest sediments are deposited in the foothill, smaller ones – in the flat part of the channel.

Superficial water bodies of the republic are represented by a river network included in the Terek River basin. The largest rivers: Terek, Malka, Baksan.

The largest river – Terek originates in the territory of North Ossetia, and within the KBR its length is 76 km. All rivers of the republic are, one way or another, Terek’s tributaries, providing him with about 36% drain. The main sources of the power of the Terek River: tributaries, atmospheric precipitation, groundwater, melting snow.

Terek is a transit river that carries increased organic pollution from the territory of North Ossetia. Water is medium -iteminalized, with high rigidity, increased relative to the maximum permissible concentrations of the content of copper, zinc, molybdenum. The hydrological state of the watercourse is characterized as moderately contaminated (grade 3).

Malka River (length 210 km) – the largest left tributary of the Terek. Power sources are mainly glaciers and tributaries. In the upper reaches of the river. Malka is a mountain river, flows through limestone and shale rocks, which determines the presence in the water of the corresponding impurities of a non -lanogenic nature.

The Baksan River (length 169 km) is a large right tributary of the river. Malki. At the river. Baksan mixed nutrition: glacial, snow, atmospheric precipitation, groundwater, many tributaries. In the city of Tyrnyauz, its tributaries – p. Gerkhozhyns-Su and p. Big Kamuk. To the city of Tyrnyauza, the water of the river is saturated with oxygen, low -mineralized, the increased content of copper and molybdenum is characteristic.

By the type of nutrition and the intra-regional distribution of the drainage of the KBR river, they refer to the conditionally highlighted “Caucasian” type with flood (floods) in the warm season, which has a duration of 3-4 months and usually coincides with the summer months.

There are more than 100 lakes with a total area of ​​about 0.2 thousand hectares in the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic. A significant part of them belongs to small lakes. Most of the lakes are in highlands, their formation is associated with glaciers, and plain lakes are residual reservoirs – the old river. The main lakes of the republic: Tambanskoye, Chirikel (Blue), Upper Blue Lake, Secret Lake, Bashkara, Shadhura, etc.Particularly unique of the lower blue lake is a depth of 254 m, the area of ​​the mirror is 2.4 hectares, the temperature is stable all year round – 9.3 degrees, due to the presence of hydrogen sulfide, water has a blue color in any weather. A dry lake is a karst failure up to 100 m deep and in a diameter of 120 m.

Authorities in the field of tourism

The Ministry of Resorts and Tourism of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic

Minister: ShoGenstsukov Murat Liuanovich

Address: 360010, KBR, Nalchik, st. Kanukoeva, 5

Tel: +7 (8662) 72-02-84; fax: +7 (8662) 72-05-96

Authorities in the field of tourism of municipalities

In the territorial bodies of local self -government, structural units in the field of resorts and tourism have been created and operate.

Transport infrastructure aviation transport

In 2020, work was underway to reconstruct the current Nalchik airport, it is planned to build a modern building with an area of ​​up to 10,000 square meters. m, and the reconstruction of the runway for the possibility of taking modern aircraft.

Aeroflot, Victory and Yakutia, flights of Nalchik airport, are made from the Nalchik airport.

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